Rowling said that she "nearly died" when she heard the news. 68 In October 1998, Scholastic published Philosopher's Stone in the us under the title of Harry potter and the sorcerer's Stone, a change rowling says she now regrets and would have fought if she had been in a better position at the time. 69 Rowling moved from her flat with the money from the Scholastic sale, into 19 hazelbank terrace in Edinburgh. 57 Its sequel, harry potter and the Chamber of Secrets, was published in July 1998 and again Rowling won the Smarties Prize. 70 In December 1999, the third novel, harry potter and the Prisoner of azkaban, won the Smarties Prize, making Rowling the first person to win the award three times running. 71 She later withdrew the fourth Harry potter novel from contention to allow other books a fair chance. In January 2000, Prisoner of azkaban won the inaugural Whitbread Children's book of the year award, though it lost the book of the year prize to seamus heaney 's translation of beowulf. 72 The fourth book, harry potter and the goblet of Fire, was released simultaneously in the uk and the us on broke sales records in both countries.
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60 Harry potter main article: Harry potter The Elephant house, one of the cafés in Edinburgh in which Rowling wrote the first Harry potter novel 61 In 1995, rowling finished her meeting manuscript for Harry potter and the Philosopher's Stone on an old manual typewriter. 62 Upon the enthusiastic response of Bryony evens, a reader who had been asked to review the book's first three chapters, the fulham-based Christopher Little literary Agency agreed to represent Rowling in her quest for a publisher. The book was submitted to twelve publishing houses, all of which rejected the manuscript. 26 a year later she was finally given the green light (and a 1,500 advance) by editor Barry cunningham from Bloomsbury, a publishing house in London. 26 63 The decision to publish Rowling's book owes much to Alice newton, the eight-year-old daughter of Bloomsbury's chairman, who was given the first chapter to review by her father and immediately demanded the next. 64 Although Bloomsbury agreed to publish the book, cunningham says that he advised Rowling to get new a day job, since she had little chance of making money in children's books. 65 soon after, in 1997, rowling received an 8,000 grant from the Scottish Arts council to enable her to continue writing., bloomsbury published Philosopher's Stone with an initial print run of 1,000 copies, 500 of which were distributed to libraries. Today, such copies are valued between 16,000 and 25,000. 67 five months later, the book won its first award, a nestlé Smarties book prize. In February, the novel won the British book award for Children's book of the year, and later, the Children's book award. In early 1998, an auction was held in the United States for the rights to publish the novel, and was won by Scholastic Inc., for US105,000.
52 During this period, rowling was diagnosed with clinical depression and contemplated suicide. 53 Her illness inspired the characters known as Dementors, soul-sucking creatures introduced in the third book. 54 Rowling signed up for welfare benefits, describing her economic status as being "poor as it is possible to be in modern Britain, without being homeless." 20 52 Rowling was left in despair after her estranged husband arrived in Scotland, seeking both her and her. 26 She obtained an Order of Restraint, and Arantes returned to portugal, with Rowling filing for divorce in August 1994. 26 She began a teacher training course in August 1995 at the moray house School of Education, at Edinburgh University, 55 after completing her first novel while living on state benefits. 56 She wrote in many cafés, especially nicolson's Café (owned by her brother-in-law 57 58 and the Elephant house, 59 wherever she could get Jessica to fall asleep. 25 bbc interview, rowling denied the rumour that she wrote in local and cafés to escape from her unheated flat, pointing out that it had heating. One of the reasons she wrote in cafés was that taking her baby out for a walk was the best way to make her fall asleep.
20 After 18 months in Porto, she met Portuguese television journalist Jorge Arantes in a bar and found they shared an interest in Jane austen. 26 They married on their child, jessica Isabel Rowling Arantes (named after Jessica mitford was born on in Portugal. 26 Rowling had previously suffered a miscarriage. 26 The couple separated on 17 november 1993. 26 50 biographers have suggested that Rowling suffered domestic abuse during her marriage, although the extent is unknown. 26 51 In December 1993, rowling and her then-infant daughter moved to Edinburgh, scotland, to be near Rowling's sister 25 with three chapters of what would become harry potter in her suitcase. 20 seven years after graduating from university, rowling saw herself as a failure. 52 Her marriage had failed, and she was jobless with a dependent child, but she described her failure as liberating and allowing her to focus on writing.
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20 Rowling recalls doing little work, preferring to read Dickens and Tolkien. 20 After a year of study in Paris, rowling graduated from Exeter in 1986. 20 In 1988, rowling wrote a short essay about her time studying Classics titled "What was the name of that Nymph Again? Or Greek and Roman Studies Recalled it was published by the University of Exeter's journal Pegasus. 45 Inspiration and mother's death After working as a researcher and bilingual secretary in London for Amnesty International, 46 Rowling moved with her then boyfriend to manchester, 25 where she worked at the Chamber of Commerce. 26 In 1990, while she was on a four-hour-delayed train trip from Manchester to london, the idea for a story of a young boy attending a school of wizardry "came fully formed" into her mind. 25 47 When she had reached her Clapham Junction flat, she began to write immediately.
25 48 In December, rowling's mother, Anne, died after ten years suffering from multiple sclerosis. 25 Rowling was writing Harry potter at the time and had never told her mother about. 17 Her mother's death heavily affected Rowling's writing, 17 and she channelled her own feelings of loss by writing about Harry's own feelings of loss in greater detail in the first book. 49 Marriage, divorce, and single reviews parenthood Rowling moved to porto to teach. In 1993, she returned to the uk accompanied by her daughter and three completed chapters of Harry potter after her marriage had deteriorated. An essay advertisement in The guardian 26 led Rowling to move to porto, portugal, to teach English as a foreign language. 6 33 She taught at night and began writing in the day while listening to Tchaikovsky 's violin Concerto.
32 Mitford became rowling's heroine, and Rowling read all of her books. 33 Rowling has said that her teenage years were unhappy. 20 Her home life was complicated by her mother's diagnosis with multiple sclerosis 34 and a strained relationship with her father, with whom she is not on speaking terms. 20 Rowling later said that she based the character of Hermione Granger on herself when she was eleven. 35 sean Harris, her best friend in the Upper Sixth, owned a turquoise ford Anglia which she says inspired a flying version that appeared in Harry potter and the Chamber of Secrets.
36 like many teenagers, she became interested in pop music, listening to the Clash, 37 the Smiths and siouxsie sioux and adopted the look of the latter with back-combed hair and black eyeliner, a look that she would still sport when beginning university. 38 Education As a child, rowling attended St Michael's Primary School, a school founded by abolitionist William Wilberforce and education reformer Hannah More. 39 40 Her headmaster at St Michael's, Alfred Dunn, has been suggested as the inspiration for the harry potter headmaster Albus Dumbledore. 41 She attended secondary school at wyedean School and College, where her mother worked in the science department. 21 Steve eddy, her first secondary school English teacher, remembers her as "not exceptional" but "one of a group of girls who were bright, and quite good at English". 20 Rowling took a-levels in English, French and German, achieving two As and a b 26 and was head Girl. 20 In 1982, rowling took the entrance exams for Oxford University but was not accepted 20 and earned a ba in French and Classics at the University of Exeter. 42 43 Martin Sorrell, a french professor at Exeter, remembers "a quietly competent student, with a denim jacket and dark hair, who, in academic terms, gave the appearance of doing what was necessary".
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She later discovered the truth when featured in an episode of the uk genealogy series Who do you think you are?, in which she found out it was a different louis Volant who won the legion of Honour. When she heard his story of bravery and short discovered the croix de guerre was for "ordinary" soldiers like her grandfather, who had been a waiter, she stated the croix de guerre was "better" to her than the legion of Honour. 29 30 Childhood Rowling's sister dianne 6 was born at their home when Rowling was 23 months old. 25 The family moved to the nearby village winterbourne when Rowling was four. 31 As a child, rowling often essays wrote fantasy stories which she frequently read to her sister. 1 Aged nine, rowling moved to Church Cottage in the Gloucestershire village of Tutshill, close to Chepstow, wales. 25 When she was a young teenager, her great-aunt gave her a copy of Jessica mitford 's autobiography, hons and Rebels.
16 17 During the leveson Inquiry she gave evidence under the name of joanne kathleen Rowling 18 and her entry in Who's Who lists her name also as joanne kathleen Rowling. 19 Life and career Birth and family rowling's parents met on a train from King's Cross Station. After Rowling used King's Cross as a gateway into the wizarding World, it has since become a popular tourist spot. Rowling was born to peter James Rowling, a rolls-royce aircraft engineer, 20 and Anne rowling (née volant a science technician, 21 on 22 23 in Yate, gloucestershire, england, 10 miles (16 km) northeast of Bristol. 24 25 Her parents first met on a train departing from King's Cross Station bound for Arbroath in 1964. 26 They married on 26 One of her maternal great-grandfathers, dugald Campbell, was Scottish, essay born in Lamlash on the Isle of Arran. 27 28 Her mother's paternal grandfather, louis Volant, was French, and was awarded the Croix de guerre for exceptional bravery in defending the village of courcelles-le-comte during the first World War. Rowling originally believed he had won the légion d'honneur during the war, as she said when she received it herself in 2009.
has given her fans. 12 In October 2010, rowling was named the "Most Influential Woman in Britain" by leading magazine editors. 13 She has supported charities, including Comic Relief, one parent Families and Multiple Sclerosis Society of Great Britain, and launched her own charity, lumos. Contents Name Although she writes under the pen name. Rowling, her name, before her remarriage, was joanne rowling. Anticipating that the target audience of young boys might not want to read a book written by a woman, her publishers asked that she use two initials rather than her full name. As she had no middle name, she chose k (for Kathleen) as the second initial of her pen name, from her paternal grandmother. 14 She calls herself. 15 Following her remarriage, she has sometimes used the name joanne murray when conducting personal business.
Manchester to london in 1990. 6 The seven-year period that followed saw the death of her mother, birth of her first child, divorce from her first husband and relative poverty until the first novel in the series, harry potter and the Philosopher's Stone, was published in 1997. There were six sequels, of which the last, harry potter and the deathly hallows, was released in 2007. Since then, rowling has written four books for adult readers: The casual Vacancy (2012) and—under the pseudonym Robert Galbraith—the crime fiction novels The cuckoo's Calling (2013 The silkworm (2014) and Career of evil (2015). 7 Rowling has lived a " rags to riches " life story, in which she progressed from living on state benefits to being the world's management first billionaire author. She lost her billionaire status after giving away much of her earnings to charity, but remains one of the wealthiest people in the world. 9 She is the United Kingdom's bestselling living author, with sales in excess of 238M.
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Joanne rowling, ch, obe, frsl, frcpe ( /roʊlɪŋ/ "rolling 1 born writing under the pen names. Rowling and, robert Galbraith, is a british novelist, philanthropist, film and television producer and screenwriter best known for writing the, harry potter fantasy series. The books have won multiple awards, and sold more than 500 million copies, 2 becoming the best-selling book series in history. They have also been the basis for a film series, over which Rowling had overall approval on the scripts 4 and was a producer on the final films in the series. 5, born in, yate, gloucestershire, england, rowling was working as a researcher and bilingual secretary for. Amnesty International when she conceived the idea for the. Harry potter series while on a delayed train from.